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This timeline shows the complex history of race and justice in Portland.

PMG PHOTO - A 1945 City Club of Portland report recommended reducing racial tensions by requiring the city's all-white police force receive training to promote greater "tolerance and understanding." The police chief showed a "lack of enthusiasm" for the idea.

1843

Oregon's territorial government bans black immigrants, then outlaws slavery a few months later.

1844

The territorial government enacts corporal punishment for black residents who remain in the state, up to 39 lashes on the back, to be enforced by the justice of the peace. It's soon amended. Instead, the government "will publicly hire out such free negro or mulatto to the lowest bidder."

1857

Voters approve Oregon Constitution, which continues the prohibition against slavery and an exclusion of black residents.

1859

Oregon gains statehood; the only state admitted into the union with a black exclusion clause in its constitution.

1862

A year after the outbreak of the Civil War, the Oregon Legislature passes a law requiring a $5 poll tax from every "Negro, Chinaman, Hawaiian and Mulatto" who refuses to leave the state. Sheriffs are tapped to enforce it.

1870

Oregon fails to ratify the 15th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, which granted black men the right to vote. But the state Supreme Court affirms the right of black residents to vote in Oregon.

1893

During a depression, a mob of white men in La Grande, many of them jobless, burns down the local Chinatown and runs its residents out of the city.

1902

Alonzo Tucker, an African-American man, is lynched in Coos Bay. The Oregon Journal writes: "All the pleading in the world would not have saved him from the death he so thoroughly deserved,"

1915

"Birth of a Nation," a film glorifying the Ku Klux Klan, debuts in Portland. The Oregonian calls the film a "superb achievement."

1922-1923

Black men are abducted and threatened with lynching in mock lynchings in Medford, Jacksonville and Oregon City.

1924

An Alabama businessman moves to Grants Pass with his three black servants. The Southern Oregon Spokesman writes a front-page editorial headlined, "Let's keep Grants a White Man's Town."

1924

Timothy Pettis, a black man, is murdered and castrated in Coos Bay.

1945

A Senate bill would make it a misdemeanor for any Oregon business to refuse service to members of racial or religious minorities. It dies.

1945

The City Club of Portland holds a public hearing on race and crime. Records show black residents are arrested at much higher rates than whites on many charges. The police chief says it's because black people commit more crimes.

1959

Eighty-nine years after three-fourths of the states ratified the 15th Amendment giving African Americans the right to vote, Oregon joins the list, the fifth to the last state to do so.

1982

A city of Portland study on black residents and the criminal justice system finds black people are less often let off with a citation and more often taken into custody by Portland police.

1985

Lloyd Stevenson, an African-American man and former U.S. Marine, is choked to death by a Portland police officer after being mistaken for a robber. On the day of his funeral, two white officers sell T-shirts to fellow cops showing a smoking handgun and the slogan "Don't Choke 'Em, Smoke 'Em."

1992

The Oregon Supreme Court appoints the Task Force on Racial and Ethnic Issues in the Judicial System. Three years later, the task force's Implementation Committee largely fails to push through legislation focused on racial-bias training and data collection.

1997

The Oregon Supreme Court appoints the Access to Justice for All Committee to carry on the work of the implementation committee.

2001

Rep. Vicki Walker, D-Eugene, proposes a requirement that police record data on all traffic stops. After pushback by police, the data collection is made voluntary.

2010

A Portland police officer fatally shoots Aaron Campbell, an unarmed black man, after a lengthy standoff.

2015

The Oregon Legislature passes a bill requiring police and prosecutors to maintain anti-racial profiling policies and a complaint process, but falls short of the original intent.

2016

Multnomah County publishes a report showing racial disparities from arrest to imprisonment, including the same trends highlighted in 1982. The Oregon Supreme Court appoints a Council on Fairness and Inclusion to carry on the work of the committees of the 1990s.

2017

The Oregon Legislature is again considering a requirement that police track the race of people they stop. Other measures before lawmakers include mandatory bias training for police and changes in harsh drug-charge sentences that have a disproportionate impact on people of color.

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